Thursday 3 July 2014

Scopulariopsis brumptii

Scopulariopsis brumptii (Mould/Fungus)

Compare this species to Scopularis brevicaulis.

Ecology:  A cosmopolitan fungus (found just about everywhere), particularly in soil and in household dust.

Pathogenicity: Scopulariopsis brumptii is rarely implicated in disease; however, as with many other ‘non-pathogenic’ fungi, they may be considered opportunists and may be increasingly found as the cause of pulmonary (lung) infections in severely immunocompromised patients.  Encountered in the laboratory as a possible contaminant, they must be distinguished from more pathogenic fungi.

Macroscopic Morphology:  S.brumptii is a moderately rapid grower, usually maturing within about 5 days.  Surface growth may initially be whitish, then darkening from a light grey to a sepia-grey (reddish overtones) or fuscous (darker brown-grey).  One source described the colour as that of cigarette ash.  The grey overtones distinguish it from the cinnamon, tan or buff brown colour of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis.  The texture is described as velvety to powdery.

Scopulariopsis brumptii - Sabouraud-Dextrose Agar
(SAB, 12 Days, 30oC, Nikon)

Microscopic Morphology:  S.brumptii produces septate hyphae that are hyaline when young but darkens as it matures. Conidiogenous (conidia producing) cells develop from the hyphae and can appear singly or in brush-like arrangements.   These conidiogenous cells are more specifically referred to as annellides as they produce conidia (annelloconidia) in succession, each leaving a ring-like collar on the annellide when the annelloconidia is released.   The annellides (5 µm – 10 µm X 2.5 µm to 3.5 µm) are somewhat flask-shaped, with a swollen base which tapers near the apex, however they are generally more cylindrical that those of S.brevicaulis.  The annelloconidia (4.0 µm – 5.25 µm X 3.5 µm – 4.5 µm) in size and although they can be smooth, the texture is usually described as finely roughened.  They are usually pyriform (pear-shaped), dark brown in colour and have a flattened or truncated base where once attached to the annellide.  The annellations (scar/ring) produced by S.brumptii may not be very conspicuous.  Annelloconidia are produced in loose chains from the apices of the annellides.

Scopulariopsis brumptii - darkly pigmented annelloconidia.
(KOH, 400X, Nikon)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -hyaline hyphae become pigmented as are the ellipsoidal annelloconidia.
(KOH, 1000X, Nikon)

Scopulariopsis brumptii - conidiogenous cells develop from the hyphae either singly or in brush-like arrangements.  These annellides produce the oval or ellipsoidal, darkly pigmented annelloconidia.
(KOH, 1000+10X, DMD-108)

 Scopulariopsis brumptii - an annellide is seen in the center of the photo extending from the hyphae.  The "three-fingered" brush-like arrangement at the apex has anelloconidia still attached and some which have been released.  (KOH, 1000+10X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii-  appear to be two single annellides, with annelloconidia being produced at the apex.  (KOH, 1000X, Nikon)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -the hyphae is septate and has produced a single annellide, bearing a single annelloconidium, at the center of the photo. (KOH, 1000X, Nikon)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -two brush-like arrangements of the annellides of S.brumptii are seen here in the center-left of the photo.  Numerous annelloconidia, both attached and free are seen.
(LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii - two bunches of annellides (the right one more brush-like than the left) are seen in the center of the photo.  Pigmented annelloconidia are seen at the apex.
(LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -More brush-like annellides showing their arrangement and attatchment of annelloconidia.  (LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii - another branching annellide, thinned out a bit so the arrangement of the annellides are more easily seen.  The ring or collar is clearly visible on the annelloconidium seen at the lower middle of the photo.  It appears as a scar or flattened base where the annelloconidium was once attached to the annellide.   (LPCB, 1000X, Nikon)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -okay, too many photos, but what else am I going to do with them?
Hyphae, annellide & annelloconidia extending from the tips.
(LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -dittoLots of annelloconidia produced by this brush-like structure.
(LPCB, 1000+10X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -two single annellides seen extending from the hyphae traversing the center of the photo.  Each has an annelloconidium still attached to the apex.  Look closely at the darkly pigmented mature annelloconidia and you will see the collarette (annellide ring) on many.
(LPCB, 1000+10X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -a poorer example of the photo explanation above.  Two single annellides producing annelloconidia.  Many more single annellides are present in S.brumptii cultures than in S.brevicaulis cultures where the arrangements are primarily brush-like.
(LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -again, as above, single, rather than brush-like arrangements might be seen more frequently in S.brumptii, than in S.brevicaulis.
(LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -ditto - more single, rather than brush-like annellides may be seen in S.brumptii cultures.  (LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -and a single annellide with an attached annelloconidium seen in the center of the photo.  A single free annelloconidium is seen in the upper left-third of the photo - the annellide ring or collarette visible at the bottom.  (LPCB, 1000+10X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii - a crowded photo showing at least two brush-like arrangements of annellides within a 'sea' of pigmented annelloconidia.
(LPCB, 1000X, DMD-108)

Scopulariopsis brumptii -oh, what the heck! -here's one more.  A brush-like arrangement of annellides and darkly pigmented, oval to ellipsoidal annelloconidia.
(LPCB, 1000+10X, DMD-108)

Note: Scopulariopsis species may show variable sensitivity to cycloheximide and therefore may or may not grow on Mycosel/Dermasil® agar.

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